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罗伯特·沃尔丁格TED演讲《What makes a good life》文本

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发表于 2023-12-20 23:59:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
TED演讲标题为《什么是美好的生活?来自幸福研究的启示》是由Robert Waldinger主讲的。在这个演讲中,Waldinger讨论了哈佛成人发展研究的发现,这是有史以来进行的最长时间的成人生活研究之一。该研究跟踪了两组男性的生活,历时75年,旨在揭示导致幸福和健康生活的因素。
Waldinger分享了研究的三个关键教训:
  • 社交关系: 良好的关系对幸福和健康至关重要。与家人、朋友或社区保持更多社交联系的人往往更幸福、更健康,寿命更长。
  • 关系质量: 问题不仅在于朋友数量或是否处于一段稳定的关系中;亲密关系的质量也很重要。生活在冲突中对健康非常不利,而在良好、温暖的关系中生活是有保护作用的。
  • 关系与大脑健康: 良好的关系不仅保护身体,还保护大脑。在八十岁时保持一种安全附着的关系与记忆更为清晰有关,强调了感觉在需要时可以依靠伴侣的重要性。

Waldinger总结道,美好生活的关键不在于财富、名望或更努力地工作,而在于投入时间和精力培养和维护良好的人际关系。尽管人际关系可能复杂且难以处理,但它们对健康和幸福的积极影响不容忽视。

Robert.Waldinger.jpg

关于罗伯特·沃尔丁格其人及研究背景:


罗伯特·沃尔丁格(Robert Waldinger)是一位精神科医生、精神分析师和禅宗僧侣。他以哈佛成年发展研究的主任而闻名,这是一项已经进行了80多年的纵向研究。这项研究也被称为格兰特和格卢克研究,是迄今为止最长的成年生活研究之一。
研究背景:
哈佛成年发展研究始于1938年,包括两个独立的参与者群体:
  • 哈佛大学队伍:
    • 该组由哈佛大学的大二学生组成。
    • 他们在二战期间完成了大学学业,大多数人参加了战争。
  • 波士顿市贫困区队伍:
    • 该组由来自波士顿一些最贫困社区的男孩组成。
    • 选取这些男孩参与研究,特别是因为他们来自上世纪30年代波士顿一些最困扰和不利的家庭。

研究设计:
  • 数据收集:
    • 参与者接受了访谈,进行了医学检查,还对他们的父母进行了访谈。
    • 研究人员收集了关于他们生活各个方面的广泛数据,包括工作、家庭生活和健康等。
  • 跟踪:
    • 该研究涉及参与者的年度跟踪,追踪他们生活的发展轨迹。
  • 长寿性:
    • 多年来,该研究保持了卓越的长寿性,大约60名原始参与者仍然活着,并在他们九十多岁时仍在参与研究。
  • 后续代:
    • 该研究已扩展到包括原始参与者的子女在内的后续代人的研究。

主要发现:
罗伯特·沃尔丁格的TED演讲题为“什么构成了美好的生活?来自幸福最长研究的启示”,分享了这项广泛研究获得的见解。该研究的主要发现强调了在过上幸福健康的生活中良好关系的关键作用。这项研究挑战了关于财富、名望和成就重要性的常见看法,突出了培养有意义连接的重要性。
沃尔丁格的演讲主要关注了从研究中学到的三个主要教训:
  • 社交连接:
    • 与家人、朋友和社区建立社交连接对幸福、身体健康和长寿都有积极影响。
  • 关系的质量:
    • 密切关系的质量比朋友的数量或是否处于稳定关系更为重要。
  • 关系与大脑健康:
    • 良好的关系不仅能保护我们的身体,还能保护我们的大脑。在80多岁时,与另一个人建立安全附着关系对认知功能更有保护作用。

沃尔丁格的工作对理解构成充实生活的因素产生了重要影响,他的TED演讲因揭示幸福和幸福的秘密而引起了广泛关注。
Robert Waldinger is a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and Zen priest. He is best known for being the director of the Harvard Study of Adult Development, a longitudinal study that has been ongoing for over 80 years. The study, also known as the Grant and Glueck Study, is one of the longest-running studies of adult life ever conducted.

Background of the Study:
The Harvard Study of Adult Development began in 1938 and included two separate cohorts of participants:

Harvard College Cohort:

This group consisted of sophomores at Harvard College.
They all finished college during World War II, and most went off to serve in the war.
Inner City Boston Cohort:

This group was composed of boys from some of Boston's poorest neighborhoods.
These boys were chosen for the study because they came from troubled and disadvantaged families in the Boston of the 1930s.
Study Design:
Data Collection:

Participants were interviewed, given medical exams, and their parents were also interviewed.
The researchers collected extensive data on various aspects of their lives, including work, home lives, and health.
Follow-Up:

The study involved annual follow-ups with participants, tracking the trajectories of their lives.
Longevity:

Over the years, the study has maintained remarkable longevity, with about 60 of the original participants still alive and participating in their nineties.
Successive Generations:

The study has expanded to include the examination of the children of the original participants.
Key Findings:
The TED Talk by Robert Waldinger, titled "What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study on happiness," shares insights gained from this extensive study. The main findings emphasize the crucial role of good relationships in leading a happy and healthy life. The study challenges common beliefs about the importance of wealth, fame, and achievement, highlighting instead the significance of nurturing meaningful connections.

Waldinger's talk focuses on the three major lessons learned from the study:

Social Connections:

The importance of being socially connected to family, friends, and community for happiness, physical health, and longevity.
Quality of Relationships:

The quality of close relationships matters more than the quantity of friends or being in a committed relationship.
Relationships and Brain Health:

Good relationships not only protect our bodies but also safeguard our brains. Being in a securely attached relationship in one's eighties is linked to better cognitive function.
Waldinger's work has had a significant impact on the understanding of factors contributing to a fulfilling life, and his TED Talk has garnered widespread attention for its insights into the secrets of happiness and well-being.
以下是罗伯特·沃尔丁格TED演讲:《什么构成美好的生活》的英文文本:

在我们的人生中,是什么让我们保持健康且幸福呢?
If you were going to invest now in your future best self, where would you put your time and your energy?
如果现在你可以为未来的自己投资,你会把时间和精力投资在哪里呢?
There was a recent survey of millennials asking them what their most important life goals were,
最近在千禧一代中有这么一个调查,问他们生活中最重要的目标是什么,
and over 80 percent said that a major life goal for them was to get rich.
超过80%的人说最大的生活目标就是要有钱。
And another 50 percent of those same young adults said that another major life goal was to become famous.
还有50%的年轻人说另一个重要的生活目标就是要出名。
And we're constantly told to lean in to work, to push harder and achieve more.
而且我们总是被灌输要投入工作,要加倍努力,要成就更多。
We're given the impression that these are the things that we need to go after in order to have a good life.
我们被灌输了这样一种观念,只有做到刚才说的这些才能有好日子过。
Pictures of entire lives, of the choices that people make and how those choices work out for them,
要人们纵观整个人生,想象各种选择,以及这些选择最终导致的结果,
those pictures are almost impossible to get.
几乎是不可能的。
Most of what we know about human life we know from asking people to remember the past,
关于人的一生,我们能了解到的大部分都是通过人的回忆得来,
and as we know, hindsight is anything but 20/20.
但众所周知,大部分都是事后诸葛。
We forget vast amounts of what happens to us in life, and sometimes memory is downright creative.
一生中,我们会忘记很多发生过的事情,而且记忆常常不可靠。
But what if we could watch entire lives as they unfold through time?
但如果我们可以从头到尾地纵观人的一生呢?
What if we could study people from the time that they were teenagers all the way into old age
如果我们可以跟踪研究一个人,从他少年时代开始一直到他步入晚年,
to see what really keeps people happy and healthy?
看看究竟是什么让人们保持快乐和健康呢?
We did that. The Harvard Study of Adult Development may be the longest study of adult life that's ever been done.
我们做到了。哈佛大学(进行的)这项关于成人发展的研究,可能是同类研究中耗时最长的。
For 75 years, we've tracked the lives of 724 men, year after year,
在75年的时间里,我们跟踪了724个人的一生,年复一年,
asking about their work, their home lives, their health,
了解他们的工作、家庭生活、健康状况,
and of course asking all along the way without knowing how their life stories were going to turn out.
当然,在这一过程中,我们完全不知道他们的人生将走向何方。
Studies like this are exceedingly rare.
像这样的研究少之又少。
Almost all projects of this kind fall apart within a decade because too many people drop out of the study,
像这样的项目几乎都会在10年内终止,因为有许多人会中途退出,
or funding for the research dries up, or the researchers get distracted, or they die,
或者是研究资金不足,或者是研究者转换方向,或者去世,
and nobody moves the ball further down the field
然后项目无人接手。
But through a combination of luck and the persistence of several generations of researchers, this study has survived.
但感谢幸运女神的眷顾和几代研究人员的坚持不懈,这个项目存活下来了。
About 60 of our original 724 men are still alive, still participating in the study, most of them in their 90s.
目前这724人中仍有60人在世,仍然在参与研究大多数人已经90多岁了。
And we are now beginning to study the more than 2,000 children of these men.
现在我们已经开始研究他们的子孙后代,人数多达2000多人。
And I'm the fourth director of the study.
我是这个项目的第四任负责人。
Since 1938, we've tracked the lives of two groups of men.
从1938年起,我们开始跟踪两组人的生活。
The first group started in the study when they were sophomores at Harvard College.
第一组加入这个项目的人,当年在哈佛大学上大二。
They all finished college during World War II, and then most went off to serve in the war.
他们在二战期间大学毕业,大部分人都参军作战了。
And the second group that we've followed was a group of boys from Boston's poorest neighborhoods,
我们追踪的第二组人是一群来自波士顿贫民区的小男孩,
boys who were chosen for the study specifically
他们之所以被选中,
because they were from some of the most troubled and disadvantaged families in the Boston of the 1930s.
主要是因为他们来自20世纪30年代波士顿最困难最贫困的家庭。
Most lived in tenements, many without hot and cold running water.
大部分住在廉价公寓里,很多都没有冷热水供应。
When they entered the study, all of these teenagers were interviewed.
在加入这个项目时,这些年轻人都接受了面试。
They were given medical exams. We went to their homes and we interviewed their parents.
接受了身体检查。我们挨家挨户走访了他们的父母。
And then these teenagers grew up into adults who entered all walks of life.
然后这些年轻人长大成人,进入到社会各个阶层。
They became factory workers and lawyers and bricklayers and doctors, one President of the United States.
成为了工人、律师、砖匠、医生,还有一位成了美国总统。
Some developed alcoholism. A few developed schizophrenia.
有人成为酒鬼,有人患了精神分裂。
Some climbed the social ladder from the bottom all the way to the very top,
有人从社会最底层一路青云直上,
and some made that journey in the opposite direction.
也有人恰相反,掉落云端。
The founders of this study would never in their wildest dreams have imagined that
这个项目的创始人们,可能做梦都不会想到
I would be standing here today, 75 years later, telling you that the study still continues.
75年后的今天,我会站在这里,告诉你们这个项目还在继续。
Every two years, our patient and dedicated research staff calls up our men
每两年,我们耐心而专注的研究人员会打电话给我们的研究对象,
and asks them if we can send them yet one more set of questions about their lives.
问他们是否愿意再做一套关于他们生活的问卷。
Many of the inner city Boston men ask us,
那些来自波士顿的人问我们,
"Why do you keep wanting to study me? My life just isn't that interesting."
“为什么你们一直想研究我?我的生活是很无趣的。”
The Harvard men never ask that question.
但哈佛的人从没这样问过。
To get the clearest picture of these lives, we don't just send them questionnaires.
为了更好地了解这些人的生活,我们不光给他们发问卷。
We interview them in their living rooms. We get their medical records from their doctors.
我们还在他们家客厅采访他们。从他们医生那儿拿病历。
We draw their blood, we scan their brains, we talk to their children.
抽他们的血,扫描他们的大脑,跟他们的孩子聊天。
We videotape them talking with their wives about their deepest concerns.
我们拍摄下他们和妻子谈话的场景,聊的都是他们最关心的问题。
And when, about a decade ago, we finally asked the wives if they would join us as members of the study,
大约在10年前,我们终于开口问他们的妻子,是否愿意加入我们的研究,
many of the women said, "You know, it's about time."
很多女士都说,“是啊,终于轮到我们了。”
So what have we learned?
那么我们得到了什么结论呢?
What are the lessons that come from the tens of thousands of pages of information that we've generated on these lives?
那长达几万页的数据记录,记录了他们的生活,我们从这些记录中间,到底学到了什么?
Well, the lessons aren't about wealth or fame or working harder and harder.
不是关于财富、名望,或更加努力工作。
The clearest message that we get from this 75-year study is this:
从75年的研究中,我们得到的最明确的结论是:
Good relationships keep us happier and healthier. Period.
良好的人际关系能让人更加快乐和健康。就这样。


We've learned three big lessons about relationships.

关于人际关系,我们得到三大结论。
The first is that social connections are really good for us, and that loneliness kills.
第一,社会关系对我们是有益的,而孤独寂寞有害健康。
It turns out that people who are more socially connected to family, to friends, to community,
我们发现,那些跟家庭成员更亲近的人,更爱与朋友、与邻居交往的人,
are happier, they're physically healthier, and they live longer than people who are less well connected.
会比那些不善交际、离群索居的人,更快乐,更健康,更长寿。
And the experience of loneliness turns out to be toxic.
孤独寂寞是有害健康的。
People who are more isolated than they want to be from others find that they are less happy,
那些“被孤立”的人,跟不孤单的人相比,往往更加不快乐,
their health declines earlier in midlife, their brain functioning declines sooner
等他们人到中年时,健康状况下降更快,大脑功能下降得更快,
and they live shorter lives than people who are not lonely.
也没那么长寿。
And the sad fact is that at any given time, more than one in five Americans will report that they're lonely.
可惜的是,长久以来,每5个美国人中就至少有1个声称自己是孤独的。
And we know that you can be lonely in a crowd and you can be lonely in a marriage,
而且即便你身在人群中,甚至已经结婚了,你还是可能感到孤独,
so the second big lesson that we learned is that it's not just the number of friends you have,
因此我们得到的第二大结论是不是你有多少朋友,
and it's not whether or not you're in a committed relationship,
也不是你身边有没有伴侣,
but it's the quality of your close relationships that matters.
真正有影响的是这些关系的质量。
It turns out that living in the midst of conflict is really bad for our health.
整天吵吵闹闹对健康是有害的。
High-conflict marriages, for example, without much affection,
比如成天吵架,没有爱的婚姻,
turn out to be very bad for our health, perhaps worse than getting divorced.
对健康的影响或许比离婚还大。
And living in the midst of good, warm relationships is protective.
而关系和睦融洽,则对我们的健康有益。
Once we had followed our men all the way into their 80s, we wanted to look back at them at midlife
当我们的研究对象步入80岁时,我们会回顾他们的中年生活,
and to see if we could predict who was going to grow into a happy, healthy octogenarian and who wasn't.
看我们能否预测哪些人会在八九十岁时过得快乐、健康,哪些人不会。
And when we gathered together everything we knew about them at age 50,
我们把他们50岁时的所有信息进行汇总分析,
it wasn't their middle age cholesterol levels that predicted how they were going to grow old.
发现决定他们将如何老去的,并不是他们中年时的胆固醇水平。
It was how satisfied they were in their relationships.
而是他们对婚姻生活的满意度。
The people who were the most satisfied in their relationships at age 50 were the healthiest at age 80.
那些在50岁时满意度最高的人,在80岁时也是最健康的。
And good, close relationships seem to buffer us from some of the slings and arrows of getting old.
另外,良好和亲密的婚姻关系能减缓衰老带来的痛苦。
Our most happily partnered men and women reported, in their 80s,
参与者中那些最幸福的夫妻告诉我们,在他们80多岁时,
that on the days when they had more physical pain, their mood stayed just as happy.
哪怕身体出现各种毛病,他们依旧觉得日子很幸福。
But the people who were in unhappy relationships,
而那些婚姻不快乐的人,
on the days when they reported more physical pain, it was magnified by more emotional pain.
身体上会出现更多不适,因为坏情绪把身体的痛苦放大了。
And the third big lesson that we learned about relationships and our health is that
关于婚姻和健康的关系,我们得到的第三大结论是,
good relationships don't just protect our bodies, they protect our brains.
幸福的婚姻不单能保护我们的身体,还能保护我们的大脑。
It turns out that being in a securely attached relationship to another person in your 80s is protective,
研究发现,如果在80多岁时,你的婚姻生活还温暖和睦,
that the people who are in relationships where they really feel they can count on the other person in times of need,
你对自己的另一半依然信任有加,知道对方在关键时刻能指望得上,
those people's memories stay sharper longer.
那么你的记忆力都不容易衰退。
And the people in relationships where they feel they really can't count on the other one,
而反过来,那些觉得无法信任自己的另一半的人,
those are the people who experience earlier memory decline.
记忆力会更早表现出衰退。
And those good relationships, they don't have to be smooth all the time.
幸福的婚姻,并不意味着从不拌嘴。
Some of our octogenarian couples could bicker with each other day in and day out,
有些夫妻,八九十岁了,还天天斗嘴,
but as long as they felt that they could really count on the other when the going got tough,
但只要他们坚信,在关键时刻,对方能靠得住,
those arguments didn't take a toll on their memories.
那这些争吵顶多只是生活的调味剂。
So this message, that good, close relationships are good for our health and well-being,
所以请记住,幸福和睦的婚姻对健康是有利的,
this is wisdom that's as old as the hills.
这是永恒的真理。
Why is this so hard to get and so easy to ignore? Well, we're human.
但为什么我们总是办不到呢?因为我们是人类。
What we'd really like is a quick fix, something we can get that'll make our lives good and keep them that way.
我们总喜欢找捷径,总想一劳永逸,找到一种方法解决所有问题。
Relationships are messy and they're complicated and the hard work of tending to family and friends,
人际关系麻烦又复杂,与家人、朋友相处需要努力付出,
it's not sexy or glamorous. It's also lifelong. It never ends.
一点也不高大上。而且需要一辈子投入,无穷无尽。
The people in our 75-year study who were the happiest in retirement
在我们长达75年的研究中,那些最享受退休生活的人,
were the people who had actively worked to replace workmates with new playmates.
是那些主动用玩伴来替代工作伙伴的人。
Just like the millennials in that recent survey,
就像开头我说过的千禧一代一样,
many of our men when they were starting out as young adults really believed that
我们跟踪研究的很多人在年轻的时候坚信
fame and wealth and high achievement were what they needed to go after to have a good life.
名望、财富和成就是他们过上好日子的保证。
But over and over, over these 75 years, our study has shown that the people who fared the best
但在75年的时间里,我们的研究一次次地证明,日子过得最好的,
were the people who leaned in to relationships, with family, with friends, with community.
是那些主动与人交往的人,与家人、朋友或者邻居。
So what about you? Let's say you're 25, or you're 40, or you're 60.
那么你们呢?也许你现在25岁,或者40岁,或者60岁。
What might leaning in to relationships even look like?
怎样才算主动与人交往呢?
Well, the possibilities are practically endless.
嗯,我想有很多种方法吧。
It might be something as simple as replacing screen time with people time
最简单的,别再跟屏幕聊天了,去跟人聊天,
or livening up a stale relationship by doing something new together, long walks or date nights,
或者一起尝试些新事物,让关系恢复活力,一起散个步呀,晚上约个会呀,
or reaching out to that family member who you haven't spoken to in years,
或者给多年未曾联系的亲戚打个电话,
because those all-too-common family feuds take a terrible toll on the people who hold the grudges.
因为这种家庭不和睦太常见了,但它带来的伤害又很大,尤其对那些喜欢生闷气的人来说更是如此。
I'd like to close with a quote from Mark Twain.
我想引用马克·吐温的一段话来作为结束。
More than a century ago, he was looking back on his life, and he wrote this:
一个多世纪前,他回首自己的人生,写下这样一段话:
"There isn't time, so brief is life, for bickerings, apologies, heartburnings, callings to account.
“时光荏苒,生命短暂,别将时间浪费在争吵、道歉、伤心和责备上。
There is only time for loving, and but an instant, so to speak, for that."
用时间去爱吧,哪怕只有一瞬间,也不要辜负。”
The good life is built with good relationships. Thank you.
美好人生,从良好的人际关系开始。谢谢大家。

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发表于 2023-12-24 17:35:35 | 显示全部楼层
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